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However, the analysis here will also attempt to identify non-translation-practice factors that might have added to the celebrity of Meiji translators.
The aim is to consider the conditions in which these translators worked and became famous and how they might relate to the existence of the translator celebrity culture in Japan today. I have selected three translators who earned fame for a variety of reasons within and beyond their cultural contributions and who represent different categories in terms of the factors that earned them fame.
He has been selected over others in the same category for producing what is arguably the widest variety of literary works in both original and translation among his contemporaries in that period. Besides his cultural contributions, Kuroiwa also owes his fame to media attention, mass readership, and his publishing company.
Wakamatsu Shizuko , on the other hand, is the only woman translator who is examined in this analysis. She was one of the first female translators in the period to have her work recognised within the male-dominated literary milieu Hayashida, ; Tanaka, 6; Cockerill, By contrast, studies of Kuroiwa, who has received less attention from academics compared to those of his contemporaries due to the genre of his works, which are generally considered to be unscholarly, are centred on his biography.
The majority of existing studies on Wakamatsu seem to focus on the influence of her gender on her writing practice. My analysis of these Meiji translators will also consider the relationship between their prominence and the reception and means of circulation of their works.
and received, how they were advertised, and the circulation figures of the daily publications that carried their works. The data used for this analysis has been collected through archival research, which includes surveying such print media as the daily newspapers and literary magazines of that period. These materials are more likely to be found in memoirs or academic publications that were published after the Meiji period.
Therefore, the amount of original data used for this analysis is restricted. The data collected for each translator will be compared in order to establish the degree of popularity of each particular translator and the involvement of publishers in promoting their works. The findings of this historical analysis will allow this study to estimate whether the celebrity translator phenomenon is historically rooted in certain traditions more than others.
Text analysis Chapter Three The linguistic approach in Chapter Three aims to answer part of my third and fourth research questions, i. The first will consist of a textual comparison between translated texts and their original source texts. This comparative model has been applied in the history of translation studies by many leading theorists e.
Venuti employs text analysis of this kind in his study of the emergence of fluent translation in the English language He compares the degree of fluency in translations of the same original texts by different translators in different periods.
Examining the presence of such translational language in the text is one way to identify the degree to which the translator employs domesticating or foreignising approaches. Similarly, Yukari Meldrum 53 argues that the history of Japanese literature is not affected by the same questions of status as in Europe and North America, where ethnocentrism and monolingualism-centred ideologies are dominant.
Instead, it relies on the source language creating defamiliarising effects which are similar to those of foreignisation ibid. For this very reason, Wakabayashi ibid. However, what might be considered high frequency is not clearly defined. Her study, which focuses on popular fiction, examines whether these features are in fact more frequently found in translation or if they are widely accepted in original writing. She compares the use of third person pronouns, loanwords, female-specific expressions, 10 abstract nouns as subjects of transitive verbs, and paragraph length between translations and non-translations ibid.
Her findings demonstrate that a higher frequency of third person pronouns, and longer paragraphs compared to original writings are indeed observable in translation. Murakami Haruki has been chosen for this text analysis for his phenomenal visibility, which was addressed earlier. The analysis of this work in Chapter Three consists of two parts. The first will compare his translation strategy with those of his recognised contemporaries, Nozaki Takashi and Ogawa Takayoshi.
As all three translators have translated the same work by the same author, the analysis will investigate whether, or how, their approaches differ.
The chosen text for this comparative analysis is F. The text analysis will employ corpus- based methods, focusing on the specific grammatical features and expressions described above and the level of fluency, by comparing the translated texts with established Japanese language norms e. Wakabayashi, ; Yanabu, ; Yui, Translations tend to contain the female expressions more frequently than original writings, and they are often subject to criticism in terms of readability Ohmori, ; Kono, See also Meldrum The selected passages, which are between two and four lines apiece and were selected because they contain each of the features mentioned above, will enable the analysis to establish the degree to which the three different translations are domesticated or foreignised.
His case will be compared, this time, with Shibata Motoyuki, who has translated the same source texts. Paratextual analysis of celebrity translators Chapter Four Chapter Four focuses on the relationship between translator visibility and paratexts. Thus, the paratext enables a text to become complete as a book and to be offered to its readers ibid.
Furthermore, Batchelor points out that Genette ibid. The Oxford Dictionary defines the former as a brief explanation or note, which is located at the end of a book, while the latter is generally an introduction to a book. She argues that the importance of the functions of prefaces is overlooked in English translations by both publishers and readers 6.
In this way it will categorise afterwords according to the nature of their contents, ranging from those that are informative to those that are highly personal, such as anecdotes. The latter naturally earn the translator greater visibility as an individual than the former. Genette categorises paratexts into two types depending on their location: peritext and epitext.
McRae 16 claims that the most cited function of paratexts in translation, especially that of the preface, is to enable translators to make themselves and their works visible. As in the case of Chapter Three, the analysis of paratext in Chapter Four centres on Murakami Haruki.
It will examine his afterwords and essays that are included in his translations and the ways his name is promoted on the dust jackets, exploring how these factors relate to his exceptional prominence. The study will attempt to identify the features of paratext which might reflect or bolster his celebrity status. The analysis is divided into two stages. The second stage studies the dust jackets of the books used in stage one, focusing on their features, specifically the name of the translator.
This data was originally collected through surveys of and interviews with Japanese publishers for Chapter Five. The analysis focuses on translators, publishers and readers, the three key agents in the production of translator celebrity. It will explore the interactions between these three agents, considering how they influence translator status. The results will also be compared with the cases in other cultural contexts, including the UK and Israel. It will be argued that the Japanese case is distinct from other cultural contexts where celebrity translators also exist.
Bilodeau ibid. The same applied to translators of foreign literature, although the practice did not become standardised until the late nineteenth century Bilodeau, 48, Ruokonen ibid. These studies take a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches, employing interviews and surveys. Based on their self-evaluation, they attempt to measure translator status through studying four parameters that relate to their status, namely salary, fame, education and influence.
This approach will be incorporated in my analysis of translators explained below. This final chapter will investigate the relationship between the three key agents in the translator celebrity phenomenon: publishers, translators and readers. The analysis will first examine the various degrees of prominence of the selected translators.
The translators who were surveyed are divided into four groups, based on the categorisation I formulated earlier p. The categories are: recognised, media active, celebrity and super-celebrity. The aim is to identify how differences in the degree of prominence influence translation practices; whether the translators make conscious efforts to make themselves visible and how their cases compare to the findings in Chapter One.
The analysis will contrast the results with the UK context, in which this phenomenon is much less in evidence than in Japan. These comparisons will enable the analysis to isolate cultural and attitudinal trends that make the occurrence of celebrity translators more likely in certain contexts than others. In my conclusion, I return to my four guiding research questions and attempt explicit answers in the light of the foregoing study: 1. Introduction This chapter asks how the concept of the celebrity translator can be defined.
It aims to answer the first two research questions i. what celebrity translators are and what factors create their fame. The chapter will test the applicability of mainstream conceptualisations of celebrity to celebrity translators e.
Turner, ; Marshall, ; Gamson, It will study the processes involved in the production of celebrity translators, asking whether there are similarities with how literary celebrity is produced.
Traditionally, in the Romantic period, literary celebrities were perceived as individuals who possessed distinctive qualities such as artistic talent, high social status and a public persona Mole, xii. Ommundsen ibid. Celebrities in contemporary cultures are frequently referred to as commodities due to the nature of the celebrity creation process, which resembles commercial goods production Gamson, ; Turner, ; Rojek, In addition, whether it is through fame or infamy, the role of celebrities generates emotional reactions among audiences.
However, celebrities take many forms, and the factors that determine their status are complex. The examination in this chapter will focus primarily on the Japanese context, which will be compared with a few examples of celebrity translators in other national contexts.
These other national contexts are the Chinese and Hebrew settings in which the status of translators, in socio-cultural terms, has been studied and for which details are available in English, especially from the perspective of translator visibility e.
Hillenbrand, ; Sela-Sheffy, , The chapter will focus on the outstanding cases of celebrity translators in each context who reflect different varieties of translator visibility. These varieties range from translators who become famous for other activities in the first instance, to those whose fame is based directly on their public personae,1 and those whose fame is based on the figures of their source authors or works.
The translators who will be included in the analysis are Murakami Haruki 村上春樹 , whose phenomenal visibility will be used as the high end of the scale to be compared with the others whose degree of visibility and the factors that create their fame vary.
The aim is to demonstrate the relationship between the degree of prominence of an individual, their translation strategies and the reception of their works. The Analysis of Celebrity Translators 1. She finds that those who have attained the top level of prominence are disproportionately better paid than their less prominent counterparts, and their personal reputations allow them to negotiate individual contracts with publishers ibid.
Like celebrities in other elite professions, their fame is constructed from various factors, such as media coverage, prizes, and access to exclusive networks in literary and intellectual fields, rather than simply professionalism in translation ibid.
Sela-Sheffy ibid. Those who have no official translation qualifications usually have professions directly linked to the field of literature, and they are often intellectuals, such as poets, authors, literary editors and critics or academics, whose opinions, transmitted by the media, have a significant influence over high-end cultural issues ibid.
Moreover, literary translators in the contemporary Hebrew context frequently claim superiority over source authors ibid. The scholar and translator Nitsa Ben-Ari is a good example. These translators can be ambitious to attain professional prestige, and some of them invest considerable effort in establishing prominent social status and employ what Sela-Sheffy ibid.
This phenomenon is illustrated by the way in which their life narratives as translators or their personal relationships with the authors are frequently featured in the media. It can be argued that the lack of professional criteria is compensated for by media emphasis on their eccentric personalities and unusual lifestyles, which differentiate their status from ordinary people. The image of Hebrew translators in the first category as custodians of culture originates from the pre-state period in the nineteenth century when Hebrew was being promoted as a part of the building of a national culture Toury, xxv.
The example of Aharon Amir, an acclaimed translator who was awarded the Israel Prize, is representative of contemporary translators. On the other hand, translators in the second category importers of foreign cultures and innovators commit themselves to enriching their culture by importing texts from foreign countries whose culture is considered superior to their own ibid.
The prominent translator Rina Litvin cited in Snir, 19 claims that she translates texts with cultural importance, which can be used as models to create masterpieces in Hebrew. His mission was to make these cultures available to the majority of the population, who would otherwise have had no access to them Bronowski, The prestige these translators acquire is created by public admiration, not only for their knowledge of the foreign language, but for their privileged backgrounds, which allow them to become ambassadors of the cultures of the world Sela-Sheffy, In addition to prestige, there is another factor that adds to the prominence of the innovator-translators.
Moshe Ron, for example, suggests that the source author whose works he translated significantly influenced his persona: I started to translate from American literature things that no one had ever done anything with before. Translators whose status most clearly demonstrates the qualities of contemporary celebrity belong to the third category artists in their own right. Since the mids, Hebrew translators have been actively promoting translations as works of art in their own right Sela-Sheffy, Nili Mirsky, who was arguably the most celebrated translator in the contemporary Hebrew context, represents this phenomenon.
This trend has formed a star system in the field of translation. The celebrity translators, in turn, actively display the eccentricity which separates them from the majority of the public. Thus, these translators maintain their status by constructing images that make them unusual, creating a hierarchy between the translators and readers that stresses the extraordinary vs.
the ordinary Couldry, This social distinction may cause readers to feel a fascination for translators who have access to the space where they can create their own images and promote them, just like an actor on stage. Mirsky, for example, demonstrated her eccentricity by describing her emotional connection with particular source texts she translated.
She talked about how the characters in Anna Karenina, which she translated, haunted her: [They] actually walked around at my place at nights, all of them. I actually heard their voices. As if you had another home-land, or another world, or another soul that takes place in Russian Landsman, However, their images and narratives are not produced by cultural intermediaries, like those of celebrities in general.
Hence, it can be said that these celebrity translators possess a certain power that can influence publishers as well as readers, which contrasts with the more general understanding of modern celebrities, who are often controlled by the publicists and consumed as a product by the audience.
Chinese contexts China has a long history of culturally orientated translation activities that brought new developments and cultural shifts Hung, As in the Hebrew context, there are a number of prominent Chinese translators who are highly skilled in foreign languages and dedicate themselves to making foreign literature available to their culture.
Most of these were active from the early s up until the Cultural Revolution , during which anything associated with intellectuality was destroyed Langley, Great examples are Fu Lei 傅雷 , Guo Moruo 郭沫若 and Zhu Shenghao 朱 生豪 , whose translations render a huge range of authors, including Balzac, Dickens, Goethe, and Shakespeare respectively Chan, Cao Ying is one of the translators in the above category.
However, unlike his counterparts mentioned above, whose career spans were limited to between the s and s, Cao continued his translation practice well into the late s.
A dedicated translator of Russian literature, Cao translated, most notably, the works of Leo Tolstoy, whom he admired. Cao earned his first fame when his translation of Story about the Director of the Machine Tractor Station and the Chief Agronomist Galina Nikolaeva, was serialized in 中国青年 [China Youth] in , a magazine which publishes three million copies per issue Ni, In , at the age of 75, he finished The Complete Works of Tolstoy, a twelve-volume edition that had taken him some twenty years to translate Xie and Shi, However, Cao did not appear to promote the sales of his translations by emphasising his persona through the media, as his Israeli counterparts do.
Thus, his celebrity status was strongly associated with his contribution to the Chinese culture. However, the prominence of translators in contemporary China, especially in younger generations, is not limited to relying on their position as cultural leaders, the number of prizes they have received, and the particular works of translation they produce. Fujii ibid. lists seven translators in mainland China, one in Hong Kong and eleven in Taiwan who translate the works of Murakami in book form, not including pirated versions.
Margret Hillenbrand claims that both Lai and Lin enjoy the prestige of being privileged interpreters of Murakami, as well as mediators who link the author to readers. These translators regularly receive correspondence from Murakami fans who do not have direct access to the author himself Lin, cited in Hillenbrand, ; Lai, personal communication, Thus, these translators have arguably attained an exceptional level of celebrity status among their contemporaries. Her first official translation of the latter work was published in , and in it also became available in Hong Kong, where 47, copies were sold within two years Hillenbrand, Thus, readers seem to develop an illusion that they are connecting directly to Murakami by contacting Lai Hillenbrand, His translation of Norwegian Wood, which has become one of the all-time Chinese best-sellers, has been reprinted twenty-two times in Shanghai alone since , following the arrival of the Murakami craze via Taiwan and Hong Kong ibid: The novel had sold a total of 1,, copies in mainland China by Chan, 9.
One comparable example is the international best seller The Kite Runner Khaled Hosseini, , which, by , had sold 3 million copies since its first publication in Olesen, Hillenbrand ibid. These comparisons are also frequently made by readers in blogs and cited by literary critics ibid.
Furthermore, the celebrity status of Lin and Lai is not produced by intermediaries or by promotion of eccentric personae, as in the case of the translators in the Hebrew context. Thus, the fan base contributes in large part to the production of translator celebrity in these cases.
On the other hand, the prominence of translators such as Cao is based on the cultural contributions they make by translating.
In contrast to the examples of Lin and Lai above, these translators attain their celebrity status by providing readers with access to canonical works of foreign literature. Rather, their prominence largely relies either on the fame of the source authors or on the cultural value of the texts they translate for the target readership, given that the quality of their translations is high.
In the case of Lin and Lai, it could be said they contribute to the production of the Murakami brand rather than becoming established as brands themselves. The Japanese context As in the Chinese contexts, translation in Japan played an important role during the cultural modernisation of the late nineteenth century, which earned translators and their works notable recognition as a result, as will be explored in my next chapter.
In contemporary Japan, however, unlike in the contexts above, the core factors that earn translator prominence does not seem to be centred on self-promoting their artistic personae, emphasising the superiority of their position as cultural educators, or the result of the fame of the source authors.
Echizen, for instance, is acclaimed for his translation of The Da Vinci Code Dan Brown, , Ogawa is known for his reader-focused translation strategies Yoshioka, 4 , and Kishimoto is famous for her best-selling essays, including ねにもつタイプ Nenimotsu taipu, [Personality Type that Holds a Grudge], while her wit attracts readers to her works.
He also exerts himself in interacting with readers on his websites, and most recently through his own radio programme.
The phenomenal popularity of the radio program has been reported in the media since its first launch in August e. These translators, especially Kishimoto, Shibata and Murakami, are heavily promoted by publishers on a regular basis. The examples above suggest that Japanese celebrity translators can be conceptualised by observing the following factors that construct their fame: 1.
the popularity of particular original works or translations; 2. expertise in particular genres; 5. the level of interaction between the readership and translators and, 8. reader reception. Drawing on the distinctions between recognised, celebrity and super-celebrity which I established in the Introduction, the analysis here will examine the above factors to determine the distinctions between the translators in these categories.
The translators chosen for this analysis are: Ogawa and Echizen, whose status is referred to as recognised in this study; Kishimoto and Shibata, who have celebrity status and Murakami as super-celebrity, whose level of fame is at the very top end of the scale, in a category of its own.
The aim here is to observe the difference in the reception of their works. This comparison will also enable the analysis to determine any effect on translator visibility caused by the degree of fluency in the translations and their ultimate popularity.
Ogawa Takayoshi Ogawa, now retired Professor of English literature at Tokyo Institute of Technology, has translated a wide variety of modern classics and contemporary literature, ranging from Edgar Allan Poe, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Paul Theroux and Rohinton Mistry to more contemporary writers, such as Bret Easton Ellis and Jhumpa Lahiri.
The source texts are regularly selected and brought by publishers although he agrees to translate only what he likes Ogawa, personal communication, Ogawa is renowned for his smooth translation style, which retains the natural flow of the target language, and his reinterpretations of modern classics, regarded as innovative interpretations.
Unlike his contemporaries, Ogawa does not have his own website or social media site, a not uncommon situation among the older generation of translators. Echizen Toshiya Echizen earned recognition with his translation of the international bestseller The Da Vinci Code Dan Brown, , which was first published in Japan in Echizen had begun his career as a translator only five years prior to the publication of The Da Vinci Code.
He specialises in the mystery genre and has so far translated all the works by Brown that have been published in Japan, as well as retranslations of popular works by Ellery Queen such as The Tragedy of X Prior to the publication of this book in Japanese, the author was still largely unknown to Japanese readers, and his titles were not particularly popular Echizen, b.
Echizen ibid. explains that he was offered the translation of Angels and Demons, which required profound knowledge in science and European history, because he used to teach these subjects in schools. For the same reason, he was automatically selected to translate The Da Vinci Code, which had achieved phenomenal sales in the USA while he was still translating the former ibid.
Echizen makes media appearances from time to time, especially in terms of interviews in online-magazines. However, promotional features of the Japanese translation of the novel do not seem to lay any significant emphasis on the translator.
Similarly, the main promotional features of the book cover are the national and international sales rankings and the film version of the story. This phenomenon contrasts with Ogawa, whose fluent translation seems to be one of the main promotional factors. He translates エンタメ entame , a shortened term for entertainment genres, equivalent to popular genres in anglophone contexts, including fiction and romance.
Hence, the sales of translations in entame largely depend on the plot or the popularity of the source text in the source context, rather than the translators. Unlike Ogawa, Echizen actively communicates with readers through blogs and social media. However, his communication with readers began in , after he had earned significant recognition for his works Echizen, a: Echizen, who previously preferred to remain invisible as a translator, has, since then, started to utilise the media attention he received to take a role in promoting foreign literature ibid.
Echizen also regularly gives seminars on translation in major cities, including Tokyo and Osaka, as well as organising reading events with other prominent translators. The secrets of behind the stage, told by a best- selling literary translator]. Kishimoto Sachiko Kishimoto, who is renowned for her translation skills Niimoto, 39 , is one of the two translators to belong to the celebrity category here.
As in the case of her contemporaries above, many of her source texts were brought to her by publishers who usually select the works of authors she would favour. However, she occasionally selects her own source texts, especially for anthologies. It would not be interesting if the author were less peculiar than myself. Although Kishimoto does not have a personal imprint, the above examples indicate that her name functions as a brand which guarantees that the book is entertaining.
Kishimoto is also known as an essayist, or rather her essays have had a significant influence on her fame as a translator Kishimoto, personal communication, She has so far published three collections of essays, one of which e.
Nenimotsu taipu won the 23rd Kodansha Essay Award in The collection, which comes in a book form, consists of very short essays. However, Kishimoto named the book after her translation of Such Fun by James Salter , which is included in the book.
Her essays provide readers with access to her own voice, as opposed to her voice as a spokesperson of her source authors. Furthermore, her personal accounts allow readers a glimpse of her private life. On the other hand, her translator personality usually manifests itself in interviews, talks and round-table discussions, where she generally talks about her experiences as a translator and literature-related topics, such as the writers whose works she translates.
Her case, in which mediatisation and personalisation are much in evidence, contrasts with her contemporaries above, whose readers have access mainly to their professional personalities as translators. Thus, it could be argued that her readers can relate to what they believe Kishimoto to be as a person, which makes her more approachable than many other translators who are professors at prestigious universities.
Her approach suggests that readability is one of the reasons for the popularity of her translation work. Kishimoto is also an active user of Twitter; her account 岸 本 佐 知 子 Karyobinga currently has However, she seems to focus on tweeting mainly on topics relating to foreign literature and her works, rather than creating dialogical communication with the readers.
Shibata Motoyuki Shibata is a prolific translator who can also be located in the celebrity category. A retired professor of American literature, Shibata is well known for his translations of the works of contemporary American authors, such as Paul Auster, Rebecca Brown and Steven Millhauser Abe, The fact that the source texts are chosen by the translator practically guarantees their popularity among young-generation readers Koyano, Moreover, literary magazines 鳩よ！ Hato yo!
He has also launched a number of literary magazines, most recently Monkey in , for which he is the editor-in-chief. This magazine regularly introduces the works of contemporary American authors, and Shibata usually includes short extracts from his own translations. In addition, he is a co-founder of the English language journal Monkey Business, which focuses on introducing contemporary Japanese writings to English-speaking readers, including works by Furukawa Hideo, Ito Hiromi and Ogawa Yoko.
Shibata regularly participates in Japanese literature-related events, especially in North America, and has been interviewed as an ambassador for new Japanese writers in newspapers and on literary websites, including Granta , Asymptote and Words Without Borders So far, Shibata has also won five major awards for his translations, including the BABEL International Translation Award and the Kodansha Essay Award for his essay 生半可な學者 Namahanka na gakusha, [A Dilettante Scholar].
The latter consists of his thoughts and amusing episodes relating to his career as a scholar of American literature and English language. Thus, the essay portrays Shibata as a humorous person while maintaining his academic traits.
From all this it can be seen that Shibata earned fame largely for his talent in translation and his role as an ambassador for the works of both foreign and Japanese authors. Shibata first became involved with Murakami in , when the author was translating Setting the Bear Free Murakami describes how he learnt his translation skills through his experience of translating Setting the Bear Free together with Shibata.
While these endorsements may guarantee the quality of the translation and contribute to young translators attaining recognition, they do not necessarily provide access to the celebrity category as occurred with Shibata himself. As with Kishimoto, Shibata has also published a variety of anthologies. The above list illustrates that, like Kishimoto, Shibata has freedom in his choice of source texts irrespective of the marketability of the authors. He confirms that the benefit of being famous is that he can translate what he wants, including the works by unknown authors Shibata, personal communication, His writing style in translations has been praised by readers and critics.
Rather, he uses an alternative term in Japanese, while avoiding colloquial Japanese expressions Abe, A typical example can be found in a passage from his translation of Fugue State Brian Evenson, , which consists of dark, psychological stories.
Thus, Shibata attempts to reproduce the spookiness of the source text, not by employing terms derived from the source language but by the use of an unusual Japanese expression. Aside from the literary magazine Monkey, Shibata does not use social media sites, but relies on literary events as a means of communicating with readers Shibata, personal communication, Shibata suggests that no other literary translators in Japan actively involve themselves in organising and participating in literary events as frequently as he does ibid.
He has been a regular participant at the Tokyo International Literary Festival, the largest of its kind. Shibata also appears at events, particularly book launches, where he reads his translations and talks to the readers. Although Shibata reveals the humorous side of his personality in essays, his persona seems to be associated with his high academic profile, in contrast to Kishimoto, whose persona contains two opposite elements — talented translator versus ordinary person. Not only has he published a larger number of translations than of novels, but also his translations draw significant media attention Sato, Murakami 11 claims that some readers even prefer his translations to his novels.
He has produced a number of bestsellers, such as The Catcher in the Rye and The Great Gatsby, which have contributed to a recent reinterpretation boom Fujimoto, , Sato, 1. These translations have been heavily promoted by publishers, which has engendered high sales figures Fujimoto, : The Catcher in the Rye in particular had sold , copies within 5 years of its publication Sato, 1.
Miura ibid. Scott Fitzgerald, J. On the other hand, Miura ibid. Of course, I strongly hope many people will read what I have written; but to me, nothing else is really important.
This phenomenon resembles that of J. Salinger, who was known for his refusal to appear in the media Lyons, ; Franssen, Murakami translates mostly for personal reasons, such as admiration for particular authors, or to learn their writing styles Murakami, , although he also lists maintaining the existence of literature as a reason demonstrate that Murakami, possibly unintentionally, uses his own writing styles as a novelist in the texts he translates, which differentiates his translations from those of his counterparts who are professional translators or scholars.
One notable example is his use of the first-person pronoun 僕 boku for male protagonists, which will be discussed in Chapter Three. Fujimoto ibid. Murakami promotes the books, not through promotional activities in public, but through providing readers with anecdotes relating to his particular translations.
Murakami has co-published 翻訳夜話. However, his motives for such promotions seem to be based on his passion for translation or personal admiration for the authors rather than increasing the sales of his works. But what differentiates Murakami from his celebrity contemporaries is the level of freedom he has, which allows him to combine his own works with anthologies e. Koishikute , which is no doubt a selling point of the books, as they are usually promoted in the covers. In terms of communication with readers, Murakami focuses on doing this directly through websites.
His publishers have set up a number of websites for a limited period in which readers can post their comments and questions relating to or unconnected with his works. Murakami, in turn, answers the correspondence resulting from these websites personally. The websites include: 村 上 朝 日 堂 Murakami Asahido , which ran from June to November , February to November , and again from March to June ; 海 辺 の カ フ カ Umibe no Kafuka , September to December ; 村上モトクラシ Murakami motokurashi , which ran for an unspecified period starting in March , and the latest, 村 上 さ ん の と こ ろ Murakami-san no tokoro , which began in January and is still in existence.
This latest site, managed by Shinchosha, is said to have received fifteen thousand emails from readers across Japan within its first week McCurry, 拡張的なサポート スペルチェック辞書、ハイフネーション・パターン、シソーラスや文法チェック、拡張機能としての専門用語辞書  ,  。 以上の言語に対応したLibreOffice文書作成支援の詳細リスト 。.
ソフトウエアに組み込まれたドキュメント分類システムはない、しかしWindows Rights Management ServicesによるInformation Rights Management IRM はサポートされている. はい レンダリングの話題はこちら: tdf , tdf Support for. eps images entirely removed in Office and rental version .
In Office sales version, it was  turned off by default due to security issues, but could be manually enabled via Windows registry. There were general rendering issues of. eps files in PDF export . はい . zmf , QuarkXPress 3. サポート済 Visio いいえ MS Officeの一部ではないMS Visio経由のみ. ビデオとオーディオフォーマットのインポート、FLAC Audio. flac , Flash Video. flv , Matroska Media.
mkv , OGG Audio, Ogg Video, Quicktime Video, WebM Video, Real Audio. ra , Real Media. rm , Digital Video. dv , Audio Codec. ac3 , and Ogg Opus. LibreOffice Drawは、最大 cm x cm までのページ、レイヤー、多数の描画ツール、DTP機能をサポートしたドローイングと画像ソフトウェアです。. MS Powerpoint は幾つかのドローイングソフトウェア機能を備えている。. LibreOfficeの一部ではない、Mozilla Thunderbird などの代替PIMソフトウエアを参照。このwikiでの比較を参照： Mozilla Thunderbird vs.
Microsoft Outlook. MS Outlook. Writerは多くの進んだDTP機能をサポート。 この比較ページのWriterのセクションを見てください 。 DrawはフレームベースのDTP機能をサポートしている。 DrawにMS Publisherファイル そして他のDTPソフトウェア をインポート。. MS Publisher. BASIC 統合開発環境 IDE には以下のものが含まれない： 1. リファクタリング機構（リネームの依存関係への影響／メソッドの抽出／インターフェースの抽出 など） tdf , tdf , tdf , tdf , tdf , tdf , tdf ; 2. 自動コード補完やオブジェクトのプロパティやメソッドの表示といったインテリセンス（または他のコード補完機能） tdf ; 3. エラーチェック the IDE actually knows its symbols 。.
Visual Basic for Applications や Office Developer Tools for Visual Studio の追加購入によるサポート（Windows版のみ）。macOS版では簡略化された Visual Basic Editorのみのサポート。. 実用の OOXML ファイル（例えば. pptx）や、 標準（従来型）OOXMLファイル 、さらに厳格な OOXML ファイルのインポートの良好で拡張されたサポート。 .
MS Word、ExcelとPowerpointのWeb版でサポート。 Partial support in desktop applications via OneDrive or MS Sharepoint. Support in desktop applications varies: “Real-time typing” in MS Word, Powerpoint, “Co-authoring” in MS Excel not supported in MS Powerpoint and MS Excel in MS Office sales version; MS Powerpoint sales version only allows for co-authoring syncing after saving file.
Simplified “sharing” of office documents in MS Word, Excel, Powerpoint via OneDrive, OneDrive for Business, or SharePoint. AutoSave feature, which automatically saves every few seconds, is supported in MS Word, MS Excel, and MS Powerpoint, if files are stored on OneDrive, OneDrive for Business, or SharePoint Online Not available in MS Office sales versions on macOS and Windows.
Real-time collaboration for MS Word supported in MS Office sales version on Windows. 高度にカスタマイズ可能な UI コンセプトの “MUFFIN”  ,  : Available user interfaces: 1 Classic UI with multiple toolbars mode, and Sidebar panel.
Customization possible: Several icon themes available Karasa Jaga, Breeze, Breeze Dark, Colibre, Elementary, Sifr, Sifr Dark, Tango. リボン UI; カラーテーマ on MS Windows: Colorful, Dark Gray, Black, White. On macOS: Colorful, Classic; Dark mode not supported in Office sales version on macOS. いいえ tdf ヘルプシステムを通じてのみサポート。 Ubuntu Unity での Head-Up-Display HUD システムのサポート。 tdf Tell Me 検索バー。. Accessibility improvements . Extension for text documents: AccessODF.
はい  , . In-app chat with co-authors for shared files on SharePoint Online or OneDrive for Business. Not supported for OneDrive Consumer or any other storage location. Non-persistent chat history not preserved; new users see only newly incoming messages. Not supported in MS Office sales version; not supported on Android and iOS. はい Microsoft Word、Microsoft Powerpoint、Microsoft Outlookで対応。音声はMicrosoftのクラウドサーバーに送信され文字として返されます。 WindowsとmacOSのMicrosoft Office 永続ラインセンス版ではサポートされていません.
MathではHTMLカラーをフルサポートしています RGBカラー 、 UI要素ペイン tdf Javaランタイム環境 JRE のインストールが必要、 特定の、しかしほとんどではないソフトウェア機能に対して。 Javaは特にBaseに必要。. Work-around: Download of online video and embed it in presentation incl. Flash videos. 部分的  Word、Excel、Powerpointへのオンライン画像の挿入。. はい, PowerPoint、 Excel、 Wordと Outlookにて。レンタル版でサポート済み、MS Office販売版ではサポートされていない。 . はい, PowerPoint、Excel、Wordでの “自分と共有” 機能. いいえ サードパーティーでのサービス経由で可能. はい . いいえ tdf , MS Wordファイル形式での既存のインクアノテーションのインポートサポートのみ.
MS Windows版ではサポートされている macOS版ではサポートされていない. はい （macOS版のみ）. いいえ、しかしながら、 面倒な回避策. サポート済だが非推奨 なぜならばファイルの破損を引き起こす. サポート済み。 Redaction tool. はい リリースノート. はい . Pages vをサポート . いくつかのレイアウト問題 . 拡張されたラベル作成機能 release notes. はい generic database access, synchronise content. DTP-like features like text in multiple columns and text-wrap around graphics.
Concept of “horizontal frames” is more limited. DirectCursor allows to enter text anywhere on a page. Supported, under the name Click and type advanced option. 部分的 release notes 5. Export only as comments inside margin. Grammar check on macOS version limited to few languages. 異なっている。 Templates provide this functionality, but more difficult to handle.
Helpful extension: Template Changer tdf Experimental design themes: tdf , tdf サポート済み “document themes”. 拡張機能: TexMaths. Ability to type math using the LaTeX syntax Not supported in macOS version. いいえ tdf , but effects are preserved on import and export. Glow effect and soft edges supported.
部分的 Option to show track changes additions or deletions in margin Tools – Options – LibreOffice Writer – View – Enable Tracked deletions in margin.
Implementation misses some features, see: tdf tdf Available as experimental feature . はい . Option to track one’s own changes without forcing others to track theirs .
not supported in MS Office sales versions. Extension Read Text. Yes . Better recovery mode  , . More frequently denies opening those files. サポート済み Javaを要求. eBookフォーマットのインポート FictionBook 2.
Import of legacy Mac OS word processing documents: MS Word for Mac はい . How to switch on the feature. See also tdf Links between anchors and footnotes or endnotes even if not on the same page are available in both direction.
はい  ,  PDF . 部分的  , . Additional toolbar control to insert Emojis experimental: tdf Multi-line headings for chapters by allowing a line break as separator between a chapter number and its name in Chapter Numbering dialog. Only via work-around . 基本的な内部サポート。 Excellent free extensions: e. Zotero , Bibus , JabRef as well as proprietary extensions. 内部サポート。 Excellent free extensions: e. Zotero as well as proprietary extensions.
部分的 tdf See List of Regular Expressions. Different numerically equivalent format not supported tdf 初期設定のショートカットは少ない .
You can plug in numbers using a mouse, keyboard, touch screen or stylus. This game is fun for players of all ages, giving beginners playing tips and an introduction to Sudoku strategy. Pierwsze wydanie Office dla Windows o nazwie “Office 1. Natomiast ten pakiet nie jest nigdy Wasz, po prostu go wynajmujecie.
u kolegi, w kawiarence, w bibliotece. makra, add-iny oraz custom code. Ale po kolei. Przemawia za tym przede wszystkim argument ekonomiczny.
komputerach i 5 tabletach. oraz dla firm. A teraz zakupy Outlook 既定の動作としては、同時に参照できる予定表は 30 個までですが、「Outlook における予定表の追加数制限について」のサポート技術情報 kb に記載しているレジストリを追加することにより 30 個以上参照することができます。. 関連の参考情報 kb Title: Outlook における予定表の追加数制限について. 台灣微軟開發工具暨平台推廣處資深產品行銷經理吳典璋說明：「不論是企業內部自行開發或是委外開發軟體或App，為了讓團隊成員可以順利地協同運作，軟體生命週期管理 ALM 是一個團隊邁向成熟的必經之道，讓架構設計、程式碼撰寫、版本管控、測試、上線佈署及專案管理上軌道，以提高開發生產力、軟體品質及專案的能見度，並且讓開發好的應用能不斷地交付價值，為企業及團隊創造優勢。」.
NET程式碼可以進行版控外、甚至Java或Objective-C的程式碼也可進行版本管控; 另外還能夠支援 Team Foundation 集中式版控，與Git 分散式版控。又例如網站效能及壓力測試工具 Visual Studio Ultimate，不論受測試的Web應用程式用什麼技術開發，只要能透過http協定存取，都可透過錄製工具錄下網站操作的腳本，自動化模擬大量負載時的系統效能表現。. 要模擬多少同時上線使用者，馬上給你！ Visual Studio Online 雲端壓力測試 省錢又省力. Response Time 可供我們了解系統在大量壓力下，其系統效能是否能符合要求，進而進行系統架構調整或是程式調校。」. 縮短應用系統換版時間 降低過版出錯風險 – Release Management協助企業自動化應用系統佈署. 一個對外的應用服務、網路銀行、電子商務、或是企業核心應用等重要系統，其上版流程十分嚴謹，會有開發、測試、Staging 及Production 環境，為什麼呢？因為一旦上錯版造成錯誤，例如購物車程式算錯或網路銀行身份驗證出錯，造成的損失是無法估計的，因此在每個環境中反覆測試以確保每次改版其功能正確、符合資安及效能要求等驗證機制。以往為了讓系統人員對於改版要異動哪些程式及設定，通常需先填表單告知系統設定更新項目，即使是一個簡單的功能換版動作，若是透過人工作業，就得耗上許多溝通成本及時間，還得冒上可能出錯的風險，當系統改版愈來愈頻繁，這些挑戰就顯得更難以因應。.
At WPC, the US Partner Team has planned several events specifically for US partners. We hope you will join us for the following activities:. To help you prepare for your trip to Washington, DC and your time at WPCI have created and published to the US Partner Community Yammer network an online guide that provides schedules, links to resources, and information about:. Stay informed about US activities at Посмотреть больше through Twitter WPCUSand join the conversation at WPC14 and usatwpc.
I love this video by the DC chapter of the IAMCP—I know they are excited that WPC is in their city, and are looking forward to welcoming everyone to DC. This is a fun and informative video that shares a little bit of insider info about the city. Now that Andrew and myself have finished this round of TechNet Live! webinars I wanted to provide you with one location to get all the slides.
Windows Server R2 — Server Virtualization. Windows Server R2 — Rethink Networking. Windows Server R2 — Access and Information Protection Overview. Windows Server R2 — Server Manageability and Automation. Windows Server R2 — Enable Modern Work styles with Microsoft VDI. System Center R2 — Infrastructure Provisioning and Management. System Center R2 — Infrastructure Monitoring. System Center R2 — Automation and Self Service. System Center R2 — Application Performance Monitoring. You earn 10 virtual coins with every 30 seconds of gameplay, and the player with the most coins wins.
Even with rigorous testing, substantive validation and other confirmatory processes, a small change can elude even those closest to the process. The first change Tony mentions is the description for the AutoDagExcludeFromMonitoring parameter.
We microsoft office 2013 word chapter 2 multiple choice questions free download the ServerOneCopyMonitor, which executes only on DAG members and not standalone Mailbox servers, to be our most important redundancy protection mechanism from an HA perspective. As Tony also mentions, it is the latest incarnation of the database redundancy checks we introduced and I blogged about in May We think it is very important that all customers monitor for situations in which database redundancy is compromised and immediately take action to restore database redundancy to avoid catastrophic data loss.
What started as an external script was later shipping in the box and configured automatically on all Mailbox servers which is why the Task Scheduler service is a requirement for installing the Mailbox role in Exchange And in Exchangethe checks are now done in code as part of Managed Availability.
As a result, there are no scheduled tasks configured by Exchange, and the Task Scheduler service is not required to install the Mailbox role in Exchange The ServerOneCopyMonitor checks databases once a minute on all DAG members. It specifically is looking for databases that where:. In this event, the ServerOneCopyMonitor is notified and transitions into an Unhealthy state. And that is the way it will work in Exchange Server Cumulative Update 6 CU6.
As Tony reported, about 15 minutes after setting AutoDagExcludeFromMonitoring to True, it mysteriously reverts back to False, and the ServerOneCopyMonitor generates alerts about databases that should have been excluded.
And that brings us back to those small changes that can elude even those closest to the process. Rather, it was a function of a datacenter Exchange Online process that made its way into the enterprise microsoft office 2013 word chapter 2 multiple choice questions free download product. Can you think of a feature in Exchange that is mysterious and makes changes to your servers behind the scenes and under the covers?
As it turns out, Exchange on-premises ships with an Exchange Online responder called EnableDatabaseMonitoringResponder that is part of the DataProtection health set used in Exchange Online. I bet you can guess from the name of the responder and the microsoft office 2013 word chapter 2 multiple choice questions free download of this blog as to what that responder does. As you probably guessed, that responder runs every 15 minutes, and if it finds any databases excluded from monitoring, it re-includes them by changing the value of AutoDagExcludeFromMonitoring from True to False.
Microsoft office 2013 word chapter 2 multiple choice questions free download primary purpose of the AutoDagExcludeFromMonitoring parameter is to allow administrators to exclude a non-replicated database in a DAG from single copy alerting. All databases in all Exchange Online DAGs are replicated. As such, databases should not be excluded from monitoring, and AutoDagExcludeFromMonitoring should always be set to False.
To ensure that we catch cases in Exchange Online where AutoDagExcludeFromMonitoring was somehow set to True, we created the EnableDatabaseMonitoringResponder to check the value of AutoDagExcludeFromMonitoring and change it back to False if it finds it set to True.
And because the EnableDatabaseMonitoringResponder was included in Exchange Server, this читать is happening in on-premises environments, too. As I mentioned before, we have fixed this in a later build, and it will be included in CU6.
In the meantime, нажмите чтобы перейти you have set the value of AutoDagExcludeFromMonitoring to True because you want to exclude a database, you should be able to override the EnableDatabaseMonitoringResponder by using a server or global override; for example:. For the above override, also add either —Duration or —Build to specify a time length or have the override apply to a specific build of Exchange After this override takes effect, AutoDagExcludeFromMonitoring should remain set to True.
The second change Tony mentions is the MaintenanceSchedule parameter. I actually opened a bug to remove this parameter from Exchange way back in September No, that is not a typo. That was one of three mailbox database parameters that we deprecated and discussed removing from Exchange MaintenanceSchedule — because we no longer have scheduled maintenance 2.
PublicFolderDatabase – because we no longer have public folder databases 3. QuotaNotificationSchedule — because we no longer schedule quota ссылка на продолжение we check at logon time now.
We went through several rounds of discussions about this, and decided that instead of removing the parameters, they should be deprecated. The primary reason for this was to avoid any interoperability issues in mixed environments that contained Exchange and legacy e. For example, the PublicFolderDatabase parameter is used by Exchange admins to point Exchange users to legacy public microsoft office 2013 word chapter 2 multiple choice questions free download databases in single-forest coexistence deployments.
We also wanted to be particularly sensitive about any custom scripts that might be out there in use by admins that were leveraging these parameters. If we took the parameters out altogether, that would break these scripts. Of course, with functionality being removed, these scripts need to be fixed anyway, but we microsoft office 2013 word chapter 2 multiple choice questions free download the experience to be as frictionless as possible.
If you look at it from a pure parameter perspective, then TechNet is right. The parameter no longer does anything. But if you look at it from cmdlet perspective, Set-MailboxDatabase -MaintenanceSchedule does do something.
But to avoid any further customer confusion, I changed the description of this parameter in TechNet to read as follows:. While it can be used to change the MaintenanceSchedule property of a database, that property is ignored in Exchange because scheduled maintenance no longer exists. It makes the job interesting — or demanding.
Mission 31, now underway in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, adds one extra day to the journey.
From his underwater home in the Aquarius marine research lab, Cousteau is using Skype to reach out to young students to show them both the tight quarters inside a real working lab and the beauty of the marine life around him. com to give ссылка of people a microsoft office 2013 word chapter 2 multiple choice questions free download glimpse into the intense life of living below sea level.
We are pleased to announce the availability of version 9. This release of the MAP Toolkit helps increase the agility and cost effectiveness of deploying the latest Microsoft technologies. MAP 9. It also helps assess migrations from on-premises to Azure.
Assigning File Share permissions using Power Shell. Disk Read Error when migrating virtual machine from one cluster to another.
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Wakamatsu Shizuko Wakamatsu in printed media Analysis Text analysis I Third person pronouns Murakami buntai [Murakami-style writing] Boku and Yare-yare Katakana words Paratext in Japanese translations Dust Jackets Comparisons with the UK and USA Paratext analysis The jackets for translated books An analysis of translators Translator background Career length Source Language Translator expertise in literary genres Translator freedom Choice of source text Translation strategies Translator status Translator income Communication with readers The publication processes Defining the genre of a translation project Selecting source texts Selecting translators The translation processes The editing processes Marketing strategies Readers of translations Visibility paradigm Pilot questionnaire for Japanese translators Main questionnaire for Japanese translators There is no way around this.
Translators are celebrated when they translate celebrated books. The subject has been frequently discussed and debated at academic conferences, seminars, literary events, in newspaper articles and book reviews. He has focussed attention on the importance of the translation, replacing the image of the role of the translator as secondary to that of creative artists whose actions can potentially be responsible for cultural change Bassnett, 9.
For example, translators in Europe and North America usually have little or no influence over their publishers Venuti, Translators, like other professionals, such as novelists, chefs and artists, can attain a high degree of visibility, notably in certain countries, such as China, Israel, Japan and Taiwan, where they might even be termed celebrities.
The sharp contrast between the Japanese context and the more frequently researched contexts of Europe and North America demonstrated to me that further research into the topic would have great potential to contribute to the on-going visibility discussion.
This research takes this potential as its point of departure. In doing so, this research will contribute to broadening as well as challenging this widely applied conceptualisation developed by Venuti.
Fluent 1 All the Japanese names are listed with surnames first, followed by first names, following Japanese custom. Tamaki, ; Mizuno, She further notes the ambiguity of the terms he uses; for instance, Venuti does not indicate the degree to which a foreignised translation should contain foreign elements in order to function as an act of resistance ibid.
This phenomenon suggests that publishing practice relating to translation in Japan is distinct from the practice in areas that have been more widely researched ibid. This thesis aims to answer four main questions: 1. What are celebrity translators? What factors contribute to their fame? The first three questions above call for specific answers in specific contexts, rather than general answers. In translation practice, it refers to translators who consciously attempt to make themselves invisible in their texts.
Japanese translators seem to prefer directing the attention of the readers to the books rather than themselves and are happy to conform to Japanese publishing norms that focus on fluency. Furthermore, there are highly prominent translators who can be regarded as celebrities.
David Bellos argues that these translators are treated how authors in the UK and USA are treated. Not only are their works regularly mentioned in the reviews of literary critics, but they are also invited to promotional events and book signings. Might invisibility be held responsible here? For instance, Carmen M. Analysing translator status This thesis aims to identify those factors other than translation strategies involved in the process of creating translator prominence, through analysis of celebrity translators, their publishers and readers.
Ruokonen argues that translator status is underexplored, and, with the exception of the work of Sela-Sheffy, most such studies dealing with status are centred on practitioners working in business or other areas of non-literary translation e.
Symbolic capital in translation is usually formed when translators earn recognition for their qualities, including their talents, skills and cultural knowledge, from other agents in the same field.
Translators may attain visibility through the accumulation of such capital. First, symbolic capital is usually field- specific capital and it is not necessarily valid outside the field in which the capital is earned Driessens, They demonstrate that the visibility translators gain through the accumulation of symbolic capital in translation practice is usually valid only within their translator communities ibid. She observes that translators who promote their artistic personae are more likely to attract media attention, and thus, have greater chances of attaining celebrity status than those whose recognition is centred on their impersonal professional skills.
In other words, translators are unlikely to attain public visibility unless their distinctive qualities are talked about and circulated in the media. Similarly, habitus, another key notion in Bourdieusian theory is not directly relevant for my analysis. Gouanvic ibid. Furthermore, prior methodological approaches in translation studies have not investigated the other professions a translator may practice in terms of their influence on translator visibility.
This thesis attempts to explore this notion of translator visibility by examining celebrity translators in Japan, comparing them with their counterparts in other cultural contexts from the perspective of celebrity.
The analysis incorporates approaches from the young discipline of celebrity studies into existing methodologies in translation studies. Considering the Japanese tendency to perceive well-known literary translators as authors mentioned above, the processes involved in the production of celebrity in the area of translation may be comparable to those of literary celebrity.
The thesis posits the hypothesis that translator prominence is actively produced, based on the same principles that govern how celebrity is produced more generally. This thesis begins with a brief introduction to widely applied notions of celebrity, aiming to illustrate how celebrity can be defined in a range of domains. The introduction will also discuss how celebrities are perceived in the cultural contexts which will be analysed in Chapter One.
These contexts are: Hebrew, Chinese and Japanese. The discussion of celebrity here will include literary celebrity, the production processes of which will be compared with translator celebrity in Chapter One. Defining celebrity Chapter One 0. James Monaco employs the term hero to refer to a person who attracts attention by an act of heroism, while he uses the term star for those who achieve fame by developing public personae that become larger than their professional career.
Ascribed refers to a person whose blood lineage attracts attention, such as the British royal family, while achieved typically applies to those who attain fame by their skills and talent. Attributed celebrity is purely constructed by the media. However, Graeme Turner 25 points out that although attribution follows as a consequence of achievement, it can also occur without any achievements. Celetoids then overlap with quasars or accidental celebrities Turner, The examples above seem to suggest that celebrities tend to be categorised by the degree of randomness involved in the achievement of their status; that is, whether it was purely a matter of luck, or if they actively worked to bring it about.
This approach of categorisation is useful in describing what celebrities are, and I will employ it in my analysis of celebrity translators, based on the degree of prominence.
However, the factors that create celebrity are complex, and its production process requires such intermediaries as agents, publicist and managers. The production process of celebrity Joshua Gamson focuses on how celebrities are produced and what they mean for audiences.
He views celebrity as an industry which involves the intermediaries mentioned above. He demonstrates that celebrities are publicised and marketed in a way similar to that of commodities and are consumed by the fans and audiences who engage with them.
Celebrities provide pleasure for the audiences who admire them. Turner, by contrast, focuses on the functions of the public interest in personalities.
Furthermore, he adds that public figures are transformed into celebrities when media interest shifts from their professional careers to their private lives ibid. Wenche Ommundsen has a similar view of literary celebrities which will be discussed later. Alternatively, David P. Through an examination of celebrities in film, television and the music industry, Marshall demonstrates how these particular meanings and distinctions are valued within a specific domain and among its audience or consumers.
He explains that film celebrity is constructed to represent individuality in contemporary culture ibid. Music celebrity, on the other hand, is built through discourses of authenticity ibid. My analysis will also draw on the above approaches in investigating the factors that create translator celebrity. Historical approaches Another approach to examining celebrity is through historical analysis, which focuses on the relationship between the development of technology and society and the celebrity phenomenon in contemporary cultures.
This perspective is relevant to my research, which will trace the emergence of celebrity translators back to the late nineteenth century.
Driessens a: argues that there is a paucity of analysis of celebrity in historical research due to common assumptions in media studies that the celebrity phenomenon emerged only around the beginning of the twentieth century. Similarly, celebrity studies in Asian contexts rarely seem to trace the roots of celebrity back to before the post-Second World War period after which popular culture played a significant social role during the emergence of modernity in those contexts Fitzsimmons, 1, 3.
Technological development, especially the rise of mass media, is important in the emergence of celebrity culture. Studies that focus on the aspects of technological development are frequently seen in studies on literary and film celebrity. Marshall ibid. Fans and audiences So far in this introduction, broad definitions of celebrity and the process of its production have been discussed.
However, there are other important factors in the discussion of celebrity, including fans and audience. Celebrity commodities do not exist without their consumers, and celebrities need audiences who admire them and appreciate their presence.
They entertain the audience, not merely by displaying their exceptional talent or physical beauty, but also by exhibiting the process of living itself. These factors, therefore, enable the audience to relate to celebrities on an emotional level. However, fans are not merely the receivers of celebrity entertainment. Fandom contributes to the production of celebrities, by, for instance, providing dedicated websites.
This interaction brings them a sense of belonging, which compensates for the loss of community caused by the decline of the nuclear family phenomenon Schickel, The perspective of the relationship between the fan and the celebrity given above is relevant to the reader-translator relationship, constructed by direct and indirect communication through social media sites, blogs and promotional events.
The significance of the relationship in the production process of the celebrity translator will also be demonstrated in Chapters Five. Perceptions of celebrities in the Hebrew, Chinese and Japanese contexts In Israel, celebrities with talent and those without are clearly distinguished. However, Andrzej Klimk 1 argues that the personae of celebrities with artistic talent, such as architects in contemporary Israel, attract more media attention than their works.
Similarly, Sandra Mayer 2 infers that skilled individuals such as authors gather more media attention by appearing in televised interviews, being featured in magazines, and giving speeches than through their works. Hence, while the works they produce are still important, their personae and public appearances play key roles in the creation of celebrity in Israel. Examples include military figures, patrons of charities, as well as accidental heroes. Good deeds, bravery and patriotism earn individuals admiration, while affluent lifestyles also create public interest.
However, unlike European and North American contexts, notoriety and gossip seem to have less impact on the formation of Chinese celebrity. Thus, the factors that create celebrity in Chinese contexts seem to rely heavily on inner qualities. However, the former is a broad categorisation and covers any type of well-known individual, including those who are notorious, while the latter is more specific and refers to an eminent or renowned person Weblio Dictionary.
On the other hand, the Japanese term セレブ serebu , which is short for celebrity, usually refers to individuals who are economically affluent, elegant or rated as first-class in their roles. However, as in European and North American contexts, the production strategies of celebrities in Japan vary depending on the industry in which celebrities are produced.
The examples of widely applied existing studies given above demonstrate that examining the agents who act as intermediaries in producing celebrities, the commodity value of individuals and the reactions of fans are important in analysing celebrities in general. Literary celebrity Like other celebrities, literary celebrities create their prominence through publicity, media appearances, such as interviews and talk shows, biographies, advertising and book signings Turner, They also have a fan-base that behaves much like fans of other types of celebrities ibid.
Gaston Franssen and Rick Honings 7 suggest that there are three processes, combinations of which are crucial to the emergence of literary celebrity culture. Mediatisation generally signifies the influence of the media ibid. Subsequently, personalisation can be turned into commodification by the addition of economic value ibid. Hence, literary celebrity may be created through a succession of the three processes, provided that the writer earns recognition for the works he or she has produced in the first place.
In the following, I will first present a brief introduction to celebrity authorship, beginning with the emergence of literary celebrity culture. These developments enabled authors to acquire independent authorship, as opposed to being dependent on patronage, and also enabled the mass-production of books.
Tom Mole describes Byron as one of the earliest examples of this phenomenon. In his Byron’s Romantic Celebrity: Industrial Culture and the Hermeneutic of Intimacy, Mole argues that celebrity authorship emerged in the Romantic era when print culture became industrialised. Mole ibid. Not only were his poems read by many but also his manner of dress and even facial expressions were copied by his passionate admirers Macaulay, Furthermore, the impact of Byron on the public has been compared to that of James Dean and Mick Jagger ibid.
One comparable example in our time could be David Beckham, whose celebrity status outgrew his status as a skilled footballer. This aspect is very noticeable in the contemporary case of Murakami Haruki. Murakami, whose celebrity as a translator will be examined in Chapters One, Three and Four, is presented here as an ideal example of the commodification process, due to the scale of his celebrity status.
Therefore, it is relevant to consider Murakami as a novelist prior to examining his status as a translator. His novels in English translation are usually bestsellers Miura, , and they have been made into films e. Kafka on the Shore, Niwanaga, His name is marketed as a brand on a variety of things, including guides to his works and books of dishes that the main protagonists in his novels cook, as well as books on music featured in his novels.
The same concert had previously been performed in Seoul and Singapore in Similarly, a festival on a larger scale was organised in Rotterdam in January to celebrate the publication of De Moord Op Commendatore [Killing Commandatore]. Franssen ibid. Indeed, they expect to find such typically Murakamian characteristics when reading his works ibid. Translator celebrity The existing research in celebrity studies considered above has demonstrated variability in the nature of celebrity status and its production processes.
It therefore seems plausible that celebrity may be produced in the translation industry, although appearances of this phenomenon are arguably rare in European and North American contexts, where translators are conceptualised as invisible by default Venuti, 8. Research has been done into a number of prominent translators across the globe: examples include Mohandas K. Moreover, prominent translators also exist in European and North American contexts: for instance, the former Irish Poet Laureate and Nobel Prize winner Seamus Heaney in Ireland Brazeau, ; Hordis, , Aldo Busi in Italy Giusti, , Dmitry Puchkov in Russia Rulyova, and Ann Goldstein in the United States Burgess, Nintex Forms Help Last updated: Friday, April 17, 1 Administration and Configuration 1.
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Writer Rotation Tool , allows to rotate an image in a text document using the mouse, like others graphical objects. File format filters Export Freemind allows to export Writer documents to Freemind mind manager. Writer2LaTex allows to export Writer documents to LaTex. Writer2ePub allows to export to the a free and open e-book standard ePub. GeOOo allows to create thematic maps with LibreOffice. CorelPolyGUI : Chart trend lines improved: polynomial trend line, force intercept of trend line and moving average trend line most of its functionality is included in LibreOffice 4.
Display Formula and Result Value simultaneously Digitizer of XY chart LibreWeb , a tool to fill spreadsheet cells with data from different web pages. Remove Duplicates , quickly remove duplicates in Calc. File format filters: Calc2LaTeX allows to convert Calc tables to LaTeX.
Export as Images allows to export all the Impress slides or Draw pages as images in JPG, PNG, GIF, BMP and TIFF formats. OpenCards is a free award-winning flashcard learning software. Barcode enables LibreOffice to add barcodes to documents.
GeOOO allows the creations of thematic maps with LibreOffice. Cadlo makes it possible to make technical drawings in LibreOffice Draw. File format filters: GEDCOM import filter for Draw.
Import Google Earth files kml in Draw. Network equipment shapes for LibreOffice. All countries, all states, all regions and all historical periods. Access2Base VBA for MSAccess emulator. installed by default in LibreOffice 6. odt2daisy , converts OpenDocument Text ODT to digital talking books in the DAISY format DAISY 2.
Read Text , it uses an external program or a web service to read text. Read the selection with Calc, Draw, Impress, Web Writer and Writer. odt2braille , enables authors to print documents to a Braille embosser and to export documents as Braille files. The Braille output is well-formatted and highly customizable. Integrated office architecture: LibreOffice mobile shares the same processing engine, common to all modules, on all form factors incl.
desktop and online . Loose architecture differing between desktop different between Windows and macOS , mobile and online office. More information: Android port wiki , Commits ,  , . Arabic and other complex scripts. Support for a large portion of Microsoft Visual Basic Macros via Collabora Office. via Collabora Office. Integrated office architecture: Online LibreOffice shares the same processing engine, common to all modules, on all form factors incl.
mobile and desktop . Libreoffice Online 7. Advanced but reduced editing functionality compared to the desktop version. See also: LibreOffice Online port development. Office web apps, with advanced features, but reduced functionality compared to the desktop version.
MS SharePoint integration . See also this list: Availability of LibreOffice Online. MS Office Online Server integration in MS SharePoint. hosting , FileCloud , Retention Range , Workman. au , OffiDocs , CiviHosting , ETES , Sunjun , opendsi , GMS , OpenLogic , SwissStash , iOffice Cloud , cloudplan , EGroupware , ZenTao , SwissVON , CQ Net , Mijncloudoffice , mentorITe , PowerFolder , GMX Online Office , Mail.
com Online Office , Web. de Online Office , hostiso. com , Kolab Now , Crest Tech. こちらのリストをご覧ください: Availability of LibreOffice Online. 部分的 MS OneDrive. Supported in online versions of Writer, Calc, Impress and Draw Online only. No support of collaborative editing in desktop versions.
Supported in online versions of MS Word, Excel and Powerpoint. Collaborative editing between online and desktop versions. What You See Is What You Get. Any document being edited looks the same when saved as a PDF or when printed via Online and Chromebook App. Documents being edited do not look the same when saved as a PDF or when printed .
via Online and Chromebook App. いいえ . And additional options: Sort in multiple sequential columns or rows, and for each column or row choose alphanumeric or numeric, ascending or descending. Option to match case via Online and Chromebook App. By Number, Percent, Currency, Date, Time, Scientific, Fraction, Boolean Value and Text.
It is a WYSIWYG word processor. はい via Online and Chromebook App. Very Basic. Copying and pasting within the web app works with advanced document features. Pasting content copied from outside the web app is advanced via Online. Copying and pasting within the web app is functional for basic features available in the app. Pasting content copied from outside the web app is limited, such as it cannot copy and paste a hyperlink without losing the link.
via Online. Support a large portion of Microsoft Visual Basic Macros via Online and Chromebook App. With options for number of title pages, page to start at, title style, title numbering via Online and Chromebook App.
Gutter Margins can be positioned on the left or top via Online. Colour, Gradients, Bitmap, Pattern and Hatch, options available for each of these are the same or similar as in the LibreOffice desktop applications via Online and Chromebook App.
Transparencies, options available are the same or similar as in the LibreOffice desktop applications via Online and Chromebook App. Borders, options available are the same or similar as in the LibreOffice desktop applications via Online and Chromebook App. Columns, options available are the same or similar as in the LibreOffice desktop applications via Online and Chromebook App.
A WYSIWYG word processor via Online and Chromebook App. Full options as available in desktop via Online and Chromebook App. They appear as placeholders that you cannot edit, move or resize . Full options as available in desktop via Online. はい via Online. はい With options under sub-categories of Documents, Cross-references, Functions, DocInformation and variables via Online Chromebook App has a few less options. It is not possible to edit the destination . はい, options available are the same or similar as in the LibreOffice desktop applications via Online.
WYSIWYG precision visible anchoring via Online. With full desktop options including, size, anchors, protection, borders, rotation, corners, shading, etc.
DOC and DOCX forms. Options available are the same or similar as in the LibreOffice desktop applications via Online and Chromebook App. Basic options. Mark channel Not-Safe-For-Work? cancel confirm NSFW Votes: 0 votes. Are you the publisher? Claim or contact us about this channel. Viewing all articles. First Page Page Page Page Page Page Last Page. Browse latest View live. You can also play across all your Windows 8 devices and pick up where you left off.
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Second, two mock tests before the real. CSAT each year have served as barometers of the real test, and prepared and trained the candidates It aims to answer the first two research questions (i.e. what celebrity translators are and what factors create their fame). The chapter will test the Every single one of the documents that has had this issue with Word prints fine with word and below and there is no shortage of disk
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